Alpha-Pinene is responsible for the aroma of a pine forest. It is what gives evergreen trees their signature scent and is also found in eucalyptus, basil, parsley, and rosemary. Not only is a-pinene the most powerful terpene but it is also the most widely encountered in nature.
The easy to detect terpene promotes anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, bronchodilator, and anti cancer properties. During a study in 2012, key findings conclude alpha-pinene has an anti-inflammatory effect in acute pancreatitis. Further research suggests a-pinene might have skin and oral health benefits and also help support the immune and respiratory systems.
Beta-Myrcene is one of the most abundant terpenes found in cannabis strains. It is also found in high concentrations in mangoes, sweet basil and hops. This terpene has an earthy aroma with light hints of fruitiness. Since myrcene is the most common terpene, it produces the stereotypical smell of the plant.
Abundant in many cannabis strains, myrcene offers the user therapeutic effects like relaxing muscles and minimizing pain. When smoked or inhaled, myrcene promotes an endogenous opioid system promoting relaxing effects. The recognized sedative, in high doses, was used as a sleep-aid in Germany and acted as a muscle relaxant in mice.
Beta-Pinene is one of the two isomers of pinene and is one of the most abundant released within a forest. The aroma is common in essential oils and used in cooking due to its woodsy, pine characteristics. Alpha-pinene is the most abundant of the two isomers but B-pinene can be found in dill, parsley, basil, and rosemary.
Some of pinenes most common effects include; analgesic, antibacterial, antibiotic, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, and bronchodilator. B-Pinene shows an antimicrobial which fights against mold and pathogens but one of its main uses is as a perfume.
Some of your favorite smells and ingredients contain Ocimene. This woodsy yet trocial terpene is welcoming, and fills the air with irresistible scents. Ocimene is found in basil, mint, lavender, pepper, mango, and even in hops. Used in many recipes and perfumes, it is clear that Ocimene packs a flavorful punch.
This terpene doesn’t just provide you with an amazing sensory experience. Ocimene has antiviral, antifungal, decongestant, and anti-inflammatory qualities, making it the ideal partner for your immune system. A study in conducted in 2014 confirms the immune-boosting and anti-inflammatory qualities of the terpene; Ocimene proved to “suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines” which are responsible for creating cancerous cells.
Limonene is most distinguishable by its citrus characteristics. The natural compounds provides a citrus aroma, responsible for the scent of lemon and orange peels. It is used in many foods, drinks, perfumes, and soaps. Limonene is involved in cell signaling pathways to signal G proteins which induce cell gtrowth.
The commonly known terpene promotes weight loss, prevents and treats cancer, boosts the immune system, treats bronchitis, and helps reduce stress and anxiety. The potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties help reduce a variety of metabolic and health problems. According to a 2005 study, mice treated with limonene has an increased ability to fight bacterial infections and reduce hypersensitivity to unknown compounds such as allergies.
Beta-Ocimene is one of the isomers of Ocimene. This terpene has a flavorful herbaceous smell reminiscent of the outdoors. Like Ocimene, Beta-Ocimene is found in many ingredients, including allspice, bigarde, ho leaf, parsley, and mint. Due to its prominence in a variety of plants, including cannabis, you’ve probably smelled Beta-Ocimene before.
Like Ocimene, Beta-Ocimene is an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Interestingly, a study in 2014 showed that this terpene has anti-Candida effects, proving its vast medical potential.
Terpinolene is a smoky, woodsy aroma. It is common in plants like sage, tea tree, apples, cumin and rosemary. The piney aroma portrays slight herbal and floral undertones, isolated from trees and commonly used in household items like soaps, perfumes and insect repellant.
Terpinolene is not known for its anti-inflammatory or analgesic effects; instead the terpene is studied for its antibacterial and antifungal properties as well as an antioxidant. Research shows terpinolene might prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation, LDL, bad cholesterol. This in turn this demonstrates prevention of oxidation damage to cells leading to inhibiting cancer cell gtrowth. It is also known to have sedative effects, great for insomnia.
Linalool is abundant in both the Lamiaceae plant family, rosewood, laurels, cinnamon and other scented herbs, as well as the Rutaceae family which are citrus fruits. Dominant in lavender, linalool provides very calming and soothing aroma and effects. This relaxing and sedative terpene is is used in shampoo, soap and perfume.
The calming effects of linalool contribute to a wide variety of health benefits. Studies show the terpene reduces lung inflammation as a result of cigarette smoke as well as reverse the histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Linalool is also used to treat psychosis and anxiety which is why many candles, lotions and beauty products utilize the terpene. Relieve symptoms of depression, inflammation, insomnia, and depression.
Caryophyllene is responsible for the spiciness of black pepper. It is also in hops, cloves, rosemary, and basil. The chemically unique compound is among the most abundant terpene in cannabis. Its woodsy, spicy and peppery aroma is the only terpene to interact with the endocannabinoid system.
Originally discovered in 2008, caryophyllene acted as a cannabinoid, binding to specific pathways. This terpene targets the CB2 receptor while ignoring the CB1. Caryophyllene regulates the involvement of the CB2 receptor to provide antioxidant, analgesic, antidepressant, and anxiolytic effects. Control atherosclerosis and osteoporosis as well as help strengthen bone mass.
Humulene is found naturally in hops, sage, ginseng, cloves, and cannabis. The terpene is related to B-caryophyllene but contains its own distinct properties. It offers a subtle earthy and woody aroma with spicy herbal notes throughout. Humulene is commonly found and named after Humulus lupulus, common hops.
Similar to the cannabinoid THCv, humulene will act as an appetite suppressant, great for weight loss. In addition, the terpene also holds anticancer, anti-proliferative, antibacterial, and analgesic properties. The anti-inflammatory properties are powerful and provide effects both topically and systemically. Since humulene is a sesquiterpene, it is one of the few natural compounds to break the blood barrier by increasing the amount of oxygen in the limbic system of the brain.
Bisabolol is abundant in chamomile and common ingredient in cosmetic products offering a sweet earthy aroma. Due to its ability to tame inflammation, deepen moisturization, stimulate healing, kill germs, and help reduce fine line and wrinkles; scientists have proven this compound has specific benefits for cosmetic products.
Although used primarily for topical use, research finds oral exposure of bisabolol also provides effects. It is most commonly sought after for the skin healing effects and ability to increase penetration power of other topical ingredients. Research shows oral consumption leads to positive changes in organs and body weight. Bisabolol is also known to provide for anti-inflammatory, healing, soothing, and anti-microbial properties.
Terpinolene is a fragrant terpene found in numerous things, such as apples, nutmeg, lilacs, tea tree, and even conifers. Known for its floral and citrus aromas, this terpene is often used in perfumes, lotions, and candles.
Terpinolene has been found to possess many medical applications. Specifically, research suggests that terpinolene is an antioxidant and anticancer charastics. The antioxidant impact of terpinolene is seen in its use in cosmetics and food as a preservative. Additionally, tests on mice show that terpinolene also has a sedative effect, suggesting its potential for those seeking relaxation or sleep regulation.
Phytol is derived from chlorophyll. Sources of Phytol include barley, fish, green tea, and dark leafy greens. While this terpene doesn’t have a very distinct smell, but can have a faint grassy smell.
Phytol is used to create vitamins E and K, which play a major role in the homeostasis of the human body. These vitamins help to promote cell and skin health, while also boosting the immune system, which couldn’t happen with Phytol. Notably, Phytol has been studied as an anxiolytic due to its interactions with GABA, a hormone that helps to dictate anxiety responses.
If you love to cook, you probably love the smell of Fenchol. Found in basil, its basil-like aroma makes Fenchol is a very popular terpene. Often used in perfumery, Fenchol is a well-known and commonly used plant-derived terpene.
In a study conducted in 2007, scientists found that Fenchol, among other terpenes, has antibacterial properties. A more recent study shows that Fenchol also has antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes. All of these studies prove that Fenchol is more than just its pleasant basil smell, but rather a terpene with potentially huge medical applications.